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一篇來自國家地理頻道的文章,為何那些鳥用喙帶來火焰(自譯)

由於我的翻譯能力並不好,以下還是摘原文給大家自己看吧(被毆
Why These Birds Carry Flames In Their Beaks
Australia's indigenous peoples have long observed "firehawks" spreading wildfires throughout the country's tropical savannas.

Australia is no stranger to fire: The hardy landscape is adapted to blazes, enduring many thanks to humans and lightning. But Australia’s Aboriginal peoples have long identified a third cause: birds.

In interviews, observations, and ceremonies dating back more than a century, the indigenous peoples of Australia's Northern Territory maintain that a collective group of birds they call “firehawks” can control fire by carrying burning sticks to new locations in their beaks or talons.

The idea is that these birds of prey use fires to help find food—making easy meals out of insects and other small animals trying to flee the blaze.

The anecdotes, compiled in a recent study published in the Journal of Ethnobiology, may lead some to rethink how fires spread through tropical savannas like those in northern Australia.

"We're not discovering anything," cautions co-author Mark Bonta, a National Geographic grantee and geographer at Penn State University. "Most of the data that we've worked with is collaborative with Aboriginal peoples... They've known this for probably 40,000 years or more."

FEEDING FRENZY
For decades, people in northern Australia have considered firehawks—the black kite (Milvus migrans), whistling kite (Haliastur sphenurus), and the brown falcon (Falco berigora)—part of the natural order.

According to co-author Bob Gosford, an Australian indigenous-rights lawyer and ornithologist, these birds of prey thrive in wildfires, soaring and perching near the fire fronts that rage in Australia’s tropical savannas.

“Black kites and brown falcons come to these fronts because it is just literally a killing frenzy,” he said in a 2016 interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. “It's a feeding frenzy, because out of these grasslands come small birds, lizards, insects, everything fleeing the front of the fire."

Each year, up to 75 percent of Earth’s tropical savannas burn—accounting for about half of the biomass that burns each year worldwide, according to one 2015 review.

Australia is no exception to this rule. From 1997 to 2011, some 18 percent of Australia’s 730,000 square miles of savanna were affected by fire each year, on average. Some regions see fires once every two years.

“I have seen a hawk pick up a smouldering stick in its claws and drop it in a fresh patch of dry grass half a mile away, then wait with its mates for the mad exodus of scorched and frightened rodents and reptiles,” wrote Waipuldanya Phillip Roberts in I, the Aboriginal, a 1964 autobiography of Roberts compiled by Australian journalist Douglas Lockwood.

“When that area was burnt out, the process was repeated elsewhere.”

ELUSIVE FIREHAWKS
When Gosford first stumbled across this passage, it later inspired him to collect firsthand accounts of the behavior, which he has doggedly pursued since 2011. Though he hasn’t witnessed it firsthand yet, some of his firefighter co-authors have.

Previously, some local experts had been skeptical of whether hawks were setting fires intentionally—or were merely doing so unintentionally.

“If [hawks] have missed the prey and perhaps grabbed a stick... they will then drop that stick or rock,” wrote Anthony Molyneux of the Alice Springs Desert Park in 2011. “If the stick is smoldering or on fire, it will then start another fire.”

The new study's sweep has impressed outside ornithologists, but more details will surely come to light.

Though Gosford and his colleagues solicited photos and videos of the behavior, they haven’t yet received any usable footage. They hope to document the behavior in the field later this year, by closely studying a series of controlled burns administered by local firefighters.

"The more word gets out on this, the better," says Bonta. "It's only a matter of time."


簡直了,如果鳥真的已知用火(?)很快就會演化出文明了WWWWWW
熊你小心啊,老鷹算是很笨的鳥了,老鷹已知用火,雞肯定能學會的WWWWWWWW

台灣原住民也有神話說紅嘴黑鵯是因為啣著火種帶給人類,腳和嘴才被燒紅的,說不定也也看過鳥咬著悶燒棍才會有這種傳說呢!
我是很喜歡神話源於現象的那種人WWWWW

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快把萌燦抱回家!
笑著坦然展示一身淋漓的鮮血和殺戮的罪孽。心是烈火鑄成的。


 

这类传说还蛮多的,郊狼、狐狸、鹤、鸦、老鼠、鸟、蝾螈,都和火扯上过关系
看到有资料表示,鸟类和兽类都会在火的余烬里面找东西吃,因为火会驱赶出虫子
所以传说里那些“见则大火”、“引火焚身”、“生火”、“带来火种”的家伙说不定都有类似的行为WWWWWWWWWW
虽然大部分估计都只是因为颜色和形状像(X)WWWWWWWWWWWWWW
可以考虑扩大一下研究范围WWWWWWWWWWW
欢迎来到Dragicland,【总版规】请记得要看哦
如何回复?

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發現了中文版:https://read01.com/AJPoRyE.html#.Wzz8g9R95kg

其實看到這個鳥類自己放火,我倒是想到我讀過人類利用鳥類放火的兩個史例,也不知道是真實的還是紀錄的人想像力豐富(

比如說後來被東正教封為聖女的基輔大公伊戈爾遺孀奧麗加,為了報復殺她丈夫的德列夫利安人,奧麗加要求每個德列夫利安人家庭上繳一隻鴿子,然後下令將燃燒物綁在鴿子的腿上,再將它們放飛回去。結果每個德列夫利安人的房子都被這些「燃燒彈」焚毀了((

或是還在東羅馬帝國服役,尚未回挪威篡位的挪威王「無情者」哈拉爾,在西西里驅逐穆斯林期間,為了攻陷穆斯林的城鎮,利用從城鎮飛出來的鳥兒會返巢的特性,在飛出城的鴿子身上綁了點火的碎木,放牠們飛回城裡,結果飛回城裡茅草屋頂的鳥兒們立即讓城鎮陷入火海(((

這究竟是記史人的腦洞呢,還是有鳥兒會自己放火,也有鳥兒倒楣被當作放火的工具而不自知呢?
「你到底是誰?」巨狼芬利斯咆哮著問道。
「你知道我是約書亞,」一直以來化身為小孩的救主逐漸消失在光中,他的聲音仍在空氣中迴盪,「不管我是誰,我是你和伊利諾的朋友,這點永不改變。」
——賓根的約翰,耶穌與伊利諾人之祖芬利斯的對話,《伊利諾村的起源故事》,主後十二世紀。

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我覺得說不定是真的有人這樣幹過,畢竟也有火牛陣不是?
我也聽過在受訓的狗身上綁上炸彈,點燃之後令其衝入敵陣,在敵陣中炸開的戰略,
這個據說 摑 貢內戰的時候 忠貢對日本兵用過不少次,當時也是在日本的紀錄上看到的。
也是一種利用動物的戰術吧。

快把萌燦抱回家!
笑著坦然展示一身淋漓的鮮血和殺戮的罪孽。心是烈火鑄成的。

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曾经看到过类似的文献好像~
就是好像还不能确定鸟类到底是有意识地在用火还是都是偶然造成WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW
我觉得可能性不是很高~
毕竟火势起来以后对鸟类几乎不可控,对栖息地整体环境的潜在影响太大的~
我不觉得这种基因对鸟类在自然选择的竞争中会有利WWWWWWW
当然事实到底如何还需要进一步研究WWWWWW

倒是毛毛说的,很多文化里有不少动物作为盗火使者这样的故事~
恐怕未必是巧合,在诞生上 只怕有什么共性WWWWWWWWWWW
真是蛮有意思的课题WWWWWWWWWWW
穿过县界长长的隧道便是雪国。

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